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1. The microfiltration technology 
Microfiltration (MF) : filtration precision is in commonly 0.1-50 microns, common high precision stainless steel filter, activated carbon, ceramic filter, PP cotton and other all belong to the category of microfiltration, microfiltration technology can effectively filter the impurities in the water and sediment, rust and other large particles. 
Specific functional features are as follows: 
Stainless steel mesh, belongs to the most widely used in micro filtration technology, using the best effect of a filter medium, because of its emission features, so has the characteristics of long service life, easy to use. Coty los pre series is accuracy of 50 microns of imported 304 stainless steel mesh, filtering effect is better, longer service life. 
PP cotton: generally used for coarse filtration or pretreatment filtering precision is not high, purify water and sediment, rust and other large particulate matter. PP cotton to drainage, belongs to the disposable filter material, use a period of time need to change. 
: activated carbon is mainly used for the water absorption of different color peculiar smell, the taste of the residual chlorine tap water to remove a significant effect. Activated carbon is disposable filter material, use a period of time need to change. 
Ceramic filter: generally used for coarse filtration or pretreatment filtering precision is not high, can filter out the water and sediment, rust and other large particulate matter. Ceramic filter used to a certain extent, need brush cleaning filter, can continue to use after clean. 
Coty microfiltration series of products are: KDR - Q - 1000 (4), KDR - Q - 1000 (6), cunkou (1) KDR - Q - 1000, KDR - Q - 3000, KDR - Q - 3000 (enhanced), KDR - Q - 3000 (luxury). 
2.Ultrafiltration technology 
(1) ultrafiltration (UF) : filtration precision in 0.001 0.1 microns, belong to one of high and new technology in the 21st century. Is a kind of using membrane separation technology of pressure difference, can filter out the rust in the water, sediment, suspended solids, colloid, bacteria, macromolecular organic matter and other harmful substances, and can retain some of the minerals and trace elements beneficial to human body. Water in the ultrafiltration process of recovery rate is as high as 95% above, and easy to realize wash and backwash, should not be blocked, a longer service life. On the market sales of bottled mineral water, mountain spring core technology in the production process is the ultrafiltration (UF) technology. 
Ultrafiltration without pressure, electric, only rely on can be filtered tap water pressure, large flow, low use cost, suitable for home drinking water purification. Purification of drinking water, therefore, the future life will be given priority to with ultrafiltration technology, and combined with other filter material, in order to achieve a wide range of processing, more fully eliminate the pollutants in the water. 
(2) the ultrafiltration filter principle: ultrafiltration is a membrane aperture size related screening process, driven by the pressure difference on both sides of the membrane, ultrafiltration membrane as the filter medium, under certain pressure, when the original fluid flow through the membrane surface, ultrafiltration membrane surface with many tiny pores allow only water and small molecules through and become through the liquid, and concentrate in the volume is greater than the membrane surface micro aperture that substance is trapped in the liquid side of the membrane, liquid becomes, thus achieve the purpose of purification, separation and enrichment of concentrate. Schematic diagram as follows: 

(3) ultrafiltration membrane materials and performance characteristics: 
Main material: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), poly (ether sulfone) (PES). 
PVC film: 
It has excellent chemical stability, acid-proof, alkali resistance and resistance to hydrolysis performance, can be widely used in various fields; 
Membrane wire has good strength and flexibility; 
Through hydrophilic modification, to have the very strong stain resistance. 
PVDF membrane: 
Uv resistance, has excellent resistance to pollution and chemical erosion performance; 
Heat temperature can reach 140 ℃, can use superheated steam and ethylene oxide sterilization; 
In a relatively wide PH range (1-13), can under the condition of strong acid and strong alkali and a variety of organic solvents used. 
(4) factors affecting ultrafiltration membrane flow: 
The influence of temperature on water rate, temperature of the water molecule activity, viscosity is reduced, so the water rate is increased. Conversely water rate decreased, so even with shearing filter system in winter and summer water rate difference is very big. 
Operating pressure on the influence of water rate: in the low pressure stage ultrafiltration membrane water rate is proportional to the pressure of the relationship, which increases as the pressure rises as the water rate, but when the pressure value more than 0.3 MPa, even if the pressure rises, the increase of the water rate is small, is mainly due to the ultrafiltration membrane under high pressure is caused by pressure and increase water resistance. 
Water turbidity of water rate: the influence of water turbidity, the greater the ultrafiltration membrane water rate is less, and the water turbidity large are more likely to cause blockage of ultrafiltration membrane. 
The influence of velocity of water rate: the influence of the change of the velocity of water rate is not as clear as temperature and pressure, flow rate is too slow easy to cause the clogging in ultrafiltration membrane, then affects the water rate is too fast. 
(5) the coty ultrafiltration membrane of process parameters, performance characteristics and filtering effect: 
(1) the basic process parameters 
A, the capillary type hollow fiber membrane; 
B, the membrane is made of food grade PVC; 
C, cutting the molecular weight of 100000 daltons (about 10 nm); 
D, ultrafiltration membrane wire diameter 0.9 mm, 1.6 mm outside diameter; 
E, has good mechanical properties and heat resistance, chemical resistance and strong ability to resist pollution; 
Note: PVC raw material is divided into regular grade and food grade two, and the latter use of PVC raw materials, containing food grade PVC resin monomer vinyl chloride (VC) content below 1.0 x l0-6, can be used in food and medicine. PVC resin processing for all kinds of products, are usually add various additives to meet the required performance products, hard PVC products, such as the hard PVC tube) to join more lead stabilizers, soft PVC products, such as PVC cling film to join plasticizer, now media of PVC poisonous actually refers to a variety of additives of PVC products. 
Coty los ultrafiltration membrane made with food grade PVC resin material direct spinning ultrafiltration membrane silk, not adding stabilizer, plasticizer, contains no lead, formaldehyde and other harmful substances to human body. 
(2) performance characteristics: 
The performance characteristics of ultrafiltration membrane directly determines the ultrafiltration membrane water quality. 
1), membrane is made of food grade, contains no lead, formaldehyde and other harmful substances to human body. 
2) wire, membrane aperture 10 nanometers, can effectively filter out the water, suspended solids, colloid, bacteria harmful material such as jia first cryptosporidium and giardia. 
3), good hydrophilicity, water rate. 
4), suitable PH range, 1 to 13, susceptible to acid and alkali chemical corrosion. 
5), for food grade PVC membrane silk, high stability, performance remains constant within the next 10 years will not appear abnormal phenomenon such as decomposition, brittle fracture, discoloration. 
6), the traditional PVC pipe materials in the process of preparation, in order to increase the strength of the pipe, plastic and other indicators, will add some accessories material such as plasticizer, stabilizer. Coty company of PVC ultrafiltration membrane with pure food grade PVC powder raw material, made of pure physical, without adding plasticizer and other substances, so the product will not lead. 
A good ultrafiltration membrane silk, to achieve filtering precision, and more per unit time filtering water, at the same time to ensure the strength of the membrane filaments. 
Coty los ultrafiltration membrane silk: 
1) adopted the structure of outer cortex and cortex of microporous average aperture of 10 nanometers, ensure wire membrane filtration precision; 
2) the outer wall of the internal and external cortex is very smooth, unique mirror process, not easy to stain, and easy to wash, prevent filter clogging; 
3) refers to the structure between inside and outside layer, supporting role, at the same time, the whole film wire diameter in concentric circles, can guarantee the membrane silk surface pressure, thus improve the membrane silk strength; 
Anyhow, coty ultrafiltration membrane silk of the above three characteristics, make silk membrane filtration precision, filtered water and film to achieve a good balance between fiber strength, is the international mature of ultrafiltration membrane manufacturing technology. 
(3) coty los ultrafiltration membrane filtration effect: 



悬浮物,微粒 > 2μm



出水 < 3


> 99.99%


出水 < 0.1 NTU




> 99.0%





3. Reverse osmosis 
Reverse osmosis (RO) : filtration precision is 0.0001 microns, is developed by the United States in the early 1960 s a kind of high precision using the method of differential pressure of the membrane separation technology, can filter out the almost all impurities in the water, including the tiny suspended solids, organic matters, such as ions, bacteria, viruses, only to let water molecules through, after purification, the water is pure water. Sales of bottled water on the market at the core of the production technology is to use reverse osmosis (RO) technology. 
Reverse osmosis (RO) technology used in hyper, pure water, industrial ultrapure water and medicine at first ultrapure water in areas such as manufacturing. In recent years, because of the purity of drinking water and taste for higher and in some parts of water pollution situation was complex, the reverse osmosis (RO) machine has started into the common people’s home. 
The principle of signal: 
Osmosis phenomenon is common in nature, such as a cucumber in brine, cucumber will become smaller because of water loss. Water molecules into the brine solution of cucumber is the process of infiltration process. If there is a only water molecules through the membrane to a pool of partition into two parts, on both sides of the diaphragm into pure water and salt water to the same height. Over a period of time can be found that pure water level decreased, and raise the level of the brine. We moved the water molecules through the diaphragm and phenomenon called osmosis phenomenon in brine. Salt water level rise is not unlimited, to a certain height can reach a balance. When the diaphragm liquid level difference represents pressure on both ends is referred to as osmotic pressure. The size of the osmotic pressure is directly related to the concentration of the brine. 
Reverse osmosis phenomenon and the reverse osmosis water purification technology in the above device after reaching balance, if a certain pressure on the surface of the liquid brine end, at this point, the water molecules will migrate from the salt water to pure water end. Fluid molecules under pressure from the dilute solution to the concentrated solution migration process of this phenomenon is called reverse osmosis phenomenon. If adding salt to one end of the above facilities, and more than the osmotic pressure salt water pressure in the end, we will be able to get pure water at the other end. This is the principle of reverse osmosis water purification. 
Reverse osmosis facilities in the production of pure water key has two, one is a selective membrane, we call it a semipermeable membrane, the second is a certain pressure. In brief, on the reverse osmosis membrane has many holes, these holes the size and the size of water molecules, due to bacteria, viruses, most of the organic pollutants and hydrated ion is much bigger than the water molecules, so can’t through the reverse osmosis membrane and through the reverse osmosis membrane separation of water. 
Many kinds of impurities in water, soluble salts are the most difficult to remove. As a result, often based on the discretion to determine the reverse osmosis desalination rate of the water purification effect. The discretion of the reverse osmosis desalination rate mainly depends on the selectivity of reverse osmosis membrane. At present, the high selectivity of reverse osmosis membrane element desalination rate can be as high as 99.7%. 

 4. The softening technology 

Softening technology, as the name implies, is to hard water softening technology, namely remove part or all of the calcium and magnesium ions in the water. We usually put the content of calcium and magnesium ions in water by the indicators "hardness". 1 degree of hardness is equivalent to every litres of water containing 10 mg calcium oxide. Less than 8 degrees of water known as soft water, higher than that of 17 degrees called hard water, between 8 to 17 degrees are called moderate hard water. In daily life, we often see the boiling water will be a "thermonatrite" generate "scale". This shows that the water contains a lot of inorganic substances, such as calcium, magnesium salt, etc. The salt at room temperature of the water to the naked eye can’t found that once their heating boiling, there is a lot of calcium, magnesium salt in carbonate formation of white precipitate, form the thermonatrite. The production of soft water to reduce or avoid the thermonatrite, suitable for washing and bathing. It also avoids the energy waste caused by the water pipes scale, the problem such as water equipment efficiency lower. 
Coty los water softeners is softened with cationic resin softening technology for hard water softening technology. 
The technology principle 
Cation exchange resin (commonly known as softening resin) on the Ca2 + in the water, magnesium 2 + (scale forming ingredient) replacement, with the increase of resin Ca2 +, magnesium 2 +, resin to remove Ca2 +, gradually reduce the effectiveness of magnesium 2 +. 
When resin absorb a certain amount of calcium and magnesium ions, have to regenerate, the regeneration process is to use salt box in the salt water rinse resin layer, the hardness of the resin on the ion in displacement, along with the regeneration of waste liquid discharge tank, and restore the function of softening exchange resin. 
Due to the hardness of water is mainly composed of calcium, magnesium, to form and said because of the hardness of water is mainly composed of calcium, magnesium and sodium said the principle of ion exchange softening is the raw water by sodium type cation exchange resin, make the hardness in the water composition Ca2 +, magnesium 2 + and Na + in the resin exchange, and adsorption Ca2 +, magnesium 2 + in the water, the water softening. Such as sodium with RNa resin, its exchange process is as follows: 
RNA + Ca2 + 2 = R2Ca na + + 2 
RNA + magnesium 2 + 2 = R2Mg + 2 na + 
After the water by sodium ion exchanger, water Ca +, Mg + displacement into Na +. 
Coty los water softeners standard working process mainly includes: work (sometimes called water production, similarly hereinafter), backwashing and salt absorption (regeneration), slow flushing (displacement), five quick wash process. 
Backwashing: work after a period of time of equipment, to intercept a lot in the upper portion resin contaminants from raw water, remove the dirt, after ion exchange resin can be completely exposed, the effect of regeneration can be guaranteed. Backwashing process is to wash the into the water from the bottom of the resin flow from the top, so can put at the top of the intercept down and wash away dirt. This process usually takes 5 to 15 minutes. 
Salt (renewable) : is the process of brine is injected resin tanks, traditional equipment is to use salt will salt water injection pump, coty los central intelligence soft water machine is using special built-in projector will salt water suction (as long as there is a certain water pressure). In the process of practical work, saline at a slower speed through the resin regeneration effect than pure use saline soak resin effect is good, so suggest adopt the method of brine is slowly through the resin regeneration, this process generally takes about 30 minutes, the actual time leaves the effects of salt. 
Slow flushing (displacement) : after through the resin with brine, will slowly with the raw water with the same velocity of resin rinse clean all the salt washing process is slower, because this flushing process there are still a lot of calcium and magnesium ions on the functional groups by sodium ion exchange, according to the practical experience, the process is the main process of regeneration, is often said that the replacement process. This process is generally with salt absorption at the same time, namely, about 30 minutes. 
Quick rinse: in order to bring the remaining salt rinse thoroughly, should use close to the actual work flow, with raw water to flush of resin, the final effluent of this process shall be the standard of soft water. In general, fast processing for 5-15 minutes. 


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